We have compiled a list of the references to medical sources used in our website.

Should you wish to pursue this information further, these are very good articles to read in detail.

  1. Council S. Methods of Treating Chronic Pain: A Systematic Review. Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment. 2006;SBU Yellow Report No. 177/1+2.
  2. Walsh D, Stocks J. New Therapeutic Targets for Osteoarthritis Pain. SLAS DISCOVERY: Advancing Life Sciences R&D. 2017;22(8):931-949.
  3. Derry S, Wiffen P, Kalso E, Bell R, Aldington D, Phillips T et al. Topical analgesics for acute and chronic pain in adults – an overview of Cochrane Reviews. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2017;.
  4. Lee K, Cooke J, Cooper G, Shield A. Move it or Lose it. Is it Reasonable for Older Adults with Osteoarthritis to Continue to Use Paracetamol in Order to Maintain Physical Activity?. Drugs & Aging. 2017;34(6):417-423.
  5. Vasiliadis H, Tsikopoulos K. Glucosamine and chondroitin for the treatment of osteoarthritis. World Journal of Orthopedics. 2017;8(1):1.
  6. Castrogiovanni P, Trovato F, Loreto C, Nsir H, Szychlinska M, Musumeci G. Nutraceutical Supplements in the Management and Prevention of Osteoarthritis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016;17(12):2042.
  7. Lu B, Driban J, Xu C, Lapane K. Dietary Fat Intake and Radiographic Progression of Knee Osteoarthritis: Data From the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2017;:368-375.
  8. Dean E, Gormsen Hansen R. Prescribing Optimal Nutrition and Physical Activity as “First-Line” Interventions for Best Practice Management of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation Associated with Osteoarthritis: Evidence Synthesis. Arthritis. 2012;2012:1-28.
  9. Gleicher Y, Croxford R, Hochman J, Hawker G. A prospective study of mental health care for comorbid depressed mood in older adults with painful osteoarthritis. BMC Psychiatry. 2011;11(1).
  10. Brosseau L, Taki J, Desjardins B, Thevenot O, Fransen M, Wells G et al. The Ottawa panel clinical practice guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis. Part one: introduction, and mind-body exercise programs. Clinical Rehabilitation. 2017;31(5):582-595.
  11. Park J, McCaffrey R, Newman D, Liehr P, Ouslander J. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of Chair Yoga on Pain and Physical Function Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults With Lower Extremity Osteoarthritis. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2016;65(3):592-597.
  12. Cheung C, Wyman J, Savik K. Adherence to a Yoga Program in Older Women with Knee Osteoarthritis. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. 2016;24(2):181-188.
  13. Astin J. Mind–Body Therapies for the Management of Pain. The Clinical Journal of Pain. 2004;20(1):27-32.
  14. Zeng C, li H, Yang T, Deng Z, Yang Y, Zhang Y et al. Electrical stimulation for pain relief in knee osteoarthritis: systematic review and network meta-analysis. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 2015;23(2):189-202.
  15. Lin X, Huang K, Zhu G, Huang Z, Qin A, Fan S. The Effects of Acupuncture on Chronic Knee Pain Due to Osteoarthritis. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 2016;98(18):1578-1585.
  16. Ortega E, Gálvez I, Hinchado M, Guerrero J, Martín-Cordero L, Torres-Piles S. Anti-inflammatory effect as a mechanism of effectiveness underlying the clinical benefits of pelotherapy in osteoarthritis patients: regulation of the altered inflammatory and stress feedback response. International Journal of Biometeorology. 2017;.
  17. Verhagen A, Bierma-Zeinstra S, Boers M, Cardoso J, Lambeck J, de Bie R et al. Balneotherapy (or spa therapy) for rheumatoid arthritis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2015;.
  18. Faúndez J, Cotoras P, Irarrázaval S. Are intraarticular steroids effective for knee osteoarthritis?. Medwave. 2016;16(Suppl5):e6599-e6599.
  19. Campos A, e Albuquerque R, da Silva E, Fayad S, Acerbi L, de Almeida F et al. Viscosupplementation in patients with severe osteoarthritis of the knee: six month follow-up of a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. International Orthopaedics. 2017;.
  20. He W, Kuang M, Zhao J, Sun L, Lu B, Wang Y et al. Efficacy and safety of intraarticular hyaluronic acid and corticosteroid for knee osteoarthritis: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Surgery. 2017;39:95-103.
  21. McCabe P, Maricar N, Parkes M, Felson D, O’Neill T. The efficacy of intra-articular steroids in hip osteoarthritis: a systematic review. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 2016;24(9):1509-1517.
  22. Fowler A, Swindells M, Burke F. Intra-Articular Corticosteroid Injections to Manage Trapeziometacarpal Osteoarthritis—a Systematic Review. HAND. 2015;10(4):583-592.
  23. Rabago D, Nourani B. Prolotherapy for Osteoarthritis and Tendinopathy: a Descriptive Review. Current Rheumatology Reports. 2017;19(6).
  24. Hassan F, Trebinjac S, Murrell W, Maffulli N. The effectiveness of prolotherapy in treating knee osteoarthritis in adults: a systematic review. British Medical Bulletin. 2017;122(1):91-108.
  25. Lopes de Jesus C, dos Santos F, de Jesus L, Monteiro I, Sant’Ana M, Trevisani V. Comparison between intra-articular ozone and placebo in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. PLOS ONE. 2017;12(7):e0179185.
  26. Giombini A, Menoti F, Di Cesare A. Comparison between intrarticular injection of hyaluronic acid, oxygen ozone, and the combination of both in the treatment of knee osteoarthrosis. Journal of Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2017;621-5.
  27. Lisi C, Perotti C, Scudeller L, Sammarchi L, Dametti F, Musella V et al. Treatment of knee osteoarthritis: platelet-derived growth factors vs. hyaluronic acid. A randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation. 2017;:026921551772419.
  28. Muchedzi T, Roberts S. A systematic review of the effects of platelet rich plasma on outcomes for patients with knee osteoarthritis and following total knee arthroplasty. The Surgeon. 2017;.
  29. Bhatia A, Peng P, Cohen S. Radiofrequency Procedures to Relieve Chronic Knee Pain. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. 2016;41(4):501-510.
  30. Ahmed A, Arora D. Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of genicular nerves of knee for relief of intractable pain from knee osteoarthritis: a case series. British Journal of Pain. 2017;:204946371773043.
  31. Ray T. Using Viscosupplementation to Treat Knee Osteoarthritis. The Physician and Sportsmedicine. 2013;41(4):16-24.
  32. Hui J, Thambiah M, Tan M. Role of high tibial osteotomy in cartilage regeneration – Is correction of malalignment mandatory for success?. Indian Journal of Orthopaedics. 2017;51(5):588.
  33. Birmingham T, Moyer R, Leitch K, Chesworth B, Bryant D, Willits K et al. Changes in biomechanical risk factors for knee osteoarthritis and their association with 5-year clinically important improvement after limb realignment surgery. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 2017;.
  34. Herrera-Pérez M, Boluda-Mengod J, Gutierrez-Morales M, Pais-Brito J. Artrodesis tibiotalocalcánea con clavo retrógrado cementado con antibiótico en rescate de osteosíntesis infectada de tobillo. Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología. 2017;.
  35. Krouse F, Younger A, Baumhougher J. Clinical Outcomes of Nonunions of Hindfoot and Ankle Fusions. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2016;98(23).
  36. Marsh, J., Birmingham, T., Giffin, J., Isaranuwatchai, W., Hoch, J., Feagan, B., Litchfield, R., Willits, K. and Fowler, P. (2016). Cost-effectiveness analysis of arthroscopic surgery compared with non-operative management for osteoarthritis of the knee. BMJ Open, 6(1), p.e009949.
  37. Stahl L, Ginesin E, Hous N, Kotlyarsky P, Norman D, Peskin B. NON-ARTHROPLASTY TREATMENT FOR KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS. Harefuah. 2017;:455-459.
  38. Brignardello-Petersen R, Guyatt G, Buchbinder R, Poolman R, Schandelmaier S, Chang Y et al. Knee arthroscopy versus conservative management in patients with degenerative knee disease: a systematic review. BMJ Open. 2017;:e016114.
  39. Hammett T, Simonian A, Austin M, Butler R, Allen K, Ledbetter L et al. Changes in physical activity after total hip or knee arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 6 and 12 month outcomes. Arthritis Care & Research. 2017;.
  40. Gibon E, Goodman M, Goodman S. Patient Satisfaction After Total Knee Arthroplasty. Orthopedic Clinics of North America. 2017;48(4):421-431.
  41. National Joint Replacement Registry, Australian Orthopaedic Association. Annual Report 2015 – Hip and Knee Arthroplasty [Internet]. Aoanjrr.sahmri.com. 2015 [cited 5 October 2017]. Available from: https://aoanjrr.sahmri.com/documents/10180/217745/Hip%20and%20Knee%20Arthroplasty
  42. Pak, J., Lee, J., Park, K., Park, M., Kang, L. and Lee, S. (2017). Current use of autologous adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction cells for orthopedic applications. Journal of Biomedical Science, 24(1).
  43. Jo CH, Lee YG, Shin WH, Kim H, Chai JW, Jeong EC, Kim JE, Shim H, Shin JS, Shin IS, Ra JC, Oh S, Yoon KS. Intra-articular injection of mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a proof-of-concept clinical trial. Stem Cells. 2014;32(5):1254–1266. doi: 10.1002/stem.1634
  44. Borakati, A., Mafi, R. and Khan, W. (2017). A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials of mesenchymal stem cell therapy for cartilage repair. Current Stem Cell Research and Therapies.
  45. Pas, H., Winters, M., Haisma, H., Koenis, M., Tol, J. and Moen, M. (2017). Stem cell injections in knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review of the literature. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 51(15), pp.1125-1133.
  46. Chiari, C., Walzer, S., Stelzeneder, D., Schreiner, M. and Windhager, R. (2017). Therapeutische Anwendung von Stammzellen in der Orthopädie. Der Orthopäde.
  47. Hendrich, C., Engelmaier, F., Waertel, G., Krebs, R. and Jäger, M. (2009). Safety of autologous bone marrow aspiration concentrate transplantation: initial experiences in 101 patients. Orthopedic Reviews, 1(1), p.32.
  48. Zhu, Y., Wu, X., Liang, Y. and Gu, H. (2016). Repair of cartilage defects in osteoarthritis rats with induced pluripotent stem cell derived chondrocytes. BMC Biotechnology, 16(1), p.78.
  49. Bétous R, Renoud M, Hoede C, Gonzalez I, Jones N, Longy M et al. Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Expanded Under Ambient Oxygen Concentration Accumulate Oxidative DNA Lesions and Experience Procarcinogenic DNA Replication Stress. STEM CELLS Translational Medicine. 2016;6(1):68-76.
  50. Shoji T, Nakasa T, Yoshizuka M, Yamasaki T, Yasunaga Y, Adachi N et al. Comparison of fibrin clots derived from peripheral blood and bone marrow. Connective Tissue Research. 2016;58(2):208-214.
  51. Filardo G, Perdisa F, Roffi A, Marcacci M, Kon E. Stem cells in articular cartilage regeneration. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research. 2016;11(1).
  52. Paz Rodriguez J, Murphy M, Hong S, Madrigal M, March K, Minev B et al. Autologous stromal vascular fraction therapy for rheumatoid arthritis: rationale and clinical safety. International Archives of Medicine. 2012;5(1):5.
  53. Rohani L, Johnson A, Arnold A, Stolzing A. The aging signature: a hallmark of induced pluripotent stem cells?. Aging Cell. 2013;13(1):2-7.
  54. Sugihara S, Yamamoto Y, Matsuura T, Narazaki G, Yamasaki A, Igawa G et al. Age-related BM-MNC dysfunction hampers neovascularization. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development. 2007;128(9):511-516.
  55. Riordan N, Ichim T, Min W, Wang H, Solano F, Lara F et al. Non-expanded adipose stromal vascular fraction cell therapy for multiple sclerosis. Journal of Translational Medicine. 2009;7(1):29.
  56. Liu X, Machado G, Eyles J, Ravi V, Hunter D. Dietary supplements for treating osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2017;:bjsports-2016-097333.
  57. Martin U. Genome stability of programmed stem cell products. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 2017;.
  58. Rombouts W, Ploemacher R. Primary murine MSC show highly efficient homing to the bone marrow but lose homing ability following culture. Leukemia. 2003;17(1):160-170.